Itinerary

Philadelphia

Theme: The Birth of American Self-Government

Primary Text: The Declaration of Independence
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal …”

Sunday, July 16


3:00 pm – 5:00 pm: Sheraton Society Hill Hotel Check-In. The Sheraton Society Hill is located in Philadelphia’s historic district, two blocks from Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell.

5:00 – 7:00 pm: Dinner (Participant’s Choice)

7:00 pm – 7:30 pm: Presidential Academy Overview – David Tucker (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

7:30 pm – 9:00 pm: Session 1 – Professor Morel (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

Topic: “Apple of Gold”: The Centrality of the Declaration of Independence in American
Political Life

Focus: Why is it important to understand the Declaration of Independence? What does the Declaration say, and why and how does it say it? What does the Declaration not say, and why and how does it not say it? What is the significance of Jefferson’s draft of the Declaration? What does the Declaration mean, and what does the Declaration not mean?

Readings:

  • Declaration of Independence (Ashbrook Center booklet)
  • Thomas Jefferson, Letter to Henry Lee (Ashbrook Center booklet)
  • Thomas Jefferson, Letter to Roger Weightman (Ashbrook Center booklet)
  • Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address (Ashbrook Center booklet)
  • Abraham Lincoln, Fragment on Constitution & Union (Ashbrook Center booklet)
  • Kurland and Lerner, The Founders’ Constitution
    • Chapter 15, Document 18: Thomas Jefferson, Notes on Debates in Congress (Original Draft of Declaration of Independence, July 2-4, 1776) (PRP)
    • Chapter 15, Document 18: Thomas Jefferson, Notes on Debates in Congress (July 2-4, 1776), 522-24 [Original Draft of the Declaration of Independence]
  • Martin Luther King, Jr., “I Have a Dream” speech (PRP)
  • Jaffa, Crisis of the House Divided, chap. 17, esp. 374-76

Monday, July 17


7:30 am – 9:00 am: Breakfast (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

9:00 am – 10:30 am: Session 2 – Professor Lloyd (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

Topic: The Constitutional Convention, Parts I & II — The Alternative Plans and the Connecticut Compromise

Focus: Of what significance were the rules adopted by the Convention? In what respects did the Virginia Plan represent a new constitution rather than a mere revision of the Articles? What were delegates’ initial reactions and questions concerning the Virginia Plan? What parts of the Plan were rejected or amended? What did the delegates mean when they spoke of a national government as opposed to a federal government? What different principles animate the New Jersey and Virginia Plans and the Hamilton Proposal? Why were they even introduced? What are the arguments for representation of the states, as opposed to the people, in the federal government? Consider the discussions of the executive power, bicameralism, and the role of the judiciary in the context of “republican principles.” What do “republican principles” say about the sources of power, the powers, and the structure of the federal government? Is Madison’s extended republic argument a departure from republican principles?

What accounts for the persistence of the New Jersey Plan supporters despite their defeat earlier? What are the arguments against the “legality” and “practicality” of the Amended Virginia Plan? When and how did the Connecticut Compromise emerge as a viable alternative? How did the “partly national, partly federal” concept enter the discussion? Why did Madison argue that the issue facing the delegates was not small states vs. large states but the slavery question? What is the significance of who was elected to the Gerry Committee? Who changed their minds and why during this month long discussion over representation? Who favored and who opposed the Connecticut Compromise? What else, besides the representation issue, was discussed during this part of the Convention?

Readings:

  • Lloyd and Lloyd, The Essential Bill of Rights
    • Articles of Confederation (1781), 238-46
    • James Madison, “Vices of the Political System of the United States” (April 1787), 246-253
  • James Madison, Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 (May 29, 31, June 6, 11, 13, 15, and 18), 27-45, 73-81, 98-106, 112-21, 129-39
  • James Madison, Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 (June 26, 29-30, July 2, 5, and 16), 193-201, 211-45, 297-302

10:50 am – 12:20 pm: Session 3 – Professor Lloyd (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

Topic: The Constitutional Convention, Part III — The Committee of Detail Report

Focus: Who was elected to the Committee of Detail and what has been their position so far with respect to the republican and federal issues? How does the Committee on Detail Report differ from the original and amended Virginia Plans and what significant recommendations did it make? Who was elected to the Slave Trade Committee and what had they said about slavery up to that point? How did the slavery provisions undergo changes during the deliberations?

Readings:

  • James Madison, Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 (August 6, 13, 16-25), 385-396, 437-50, 466-535
  • James Madison, Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 (September 4-8, 10, 12, 15, and 17), 573-632, 642-59

12:20 pm – 1:30 pm: Lunch (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

2:00 pm: Tour National Constitution Center. The National Constitution Center is dedicated to increasing public understanding of, and appreciation for, the Constitution, its history, and its contemporary relevance, through an interactive interpretative facility within Independence National Historical Park.

5:00 pm – 7:00 pm: Dinner (Participant’s Choice)

Tuesday, July 18


7:30 am – 9:00 am: Breakfast (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

9:00 am – 10:30 am: Session 4 – Professor Lloyd (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

Topic: The Constitutional Convention, Part IV — The Committee of Style and the End in Sight

Focus: The Brearley Committee was created to take care of “leftovers.” How did it handle the disputes concerning the Executive branch? Who was on the Committee of Style and how did the Report differ from the Committee of Detail Report? What last hour changes did the delegates make to the Report? Why did Randolph, Mason, and Gerry decide against signing the Constitution? Were their reasons similar? Did the delegates attempt to accommodate their objections? What is the significance of Franklin’s “Rising Sun” speech on the last day of the Convention?

Readings:

  • James Madison, Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 (August 6, 13, 16-25), 385-396, 437-50, 466-535
  • James Madison, Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 (September 4-8, 10, 12, 15, and 17), 573-632, 642-59

10:50 am – 12:20 pm: Session 5 – Professor Lloyd (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

Topic: The Federalist Papers, Part I — Proposed Constitution of 1787 and Its Defense

Focus: What is the structure of the argument of The Federalist? (For example, consider the outline Publius sketches in the first essay.) Why is a union of the American states not simply an option but a necessity for the survival of self-government? What improvements in “the science of politics” did Publius think necessary to make the republican form of government defensible? What is Federalist 10’s republican remedy for the problem of faction? What are the defects of the Confederation, according to Publius? Why is there “an absolute necessity for an entire change in the first principles of the system”? Why are the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union unable to preserve union?

Readings:

  • The Federalist Papers, 1-22, especially 1-10, 15, 22
  • Constitution of the United States of America (Ashbrook Center booklet)

Supplemental/Optional Reading:

  • William B. Allen, “Best Friends: The Declaration of Independence and the
    Constitution,” (PRP)

12:20 pm – 1:30 pm: Lunch (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

4:00 pm – 5:30 pm: Session 6 – Professor Morel (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

Topic: The Federalist Papers, Part II — The Sum of Power and the Separation of Powers

Focus: Outline Federalist 37-51. What, according to Madison, are “the great difficulties of founding?” What is “delicate” about the two questions raised at the end of Federalist 43? “The time has been when it was incumbent on us all to veil the ideas which this paragraph exhibits. The scene is now changed, and with it, the part which the same motives dictate.” What does Publius mean by this last sentence in the penultimate paragraph of 43? What articles and clauses of the Constitution are discussed in 43 and 44? How, in Federalist 43, does Publius defend the Convention’s proposal to supersede the Confederation “without the unanimous consent of the parties to it”?

Why, in the American representative republic, should the people “indulge all their jealousy and exhaust all their precautions” against the legislative branch? What are Publius’ criticisms of Thomas Jefferson’s suggestions for maintaining the separation of powers? Why does Publius think that it is necessary to have the “prejudices of the community” on the side of even the most rational government? What kinds of prejudices is he thinking of? Publius states that “it is the reason of the public alone that ought to controul and regulate the government. The passions ought to be controuled and regulated by the government.” How does he reconcile this principle with the republican principle that government “derives all its powers directly or indirectly from . . . the people”? Why would “an extinction of parties necessarily [imply] either a universal alarm for the public safety, or an absolute extinction of liberty”? What is the principle of separation of powers? What is the greatest threat in the American republic to separation of powers, and why is this the greatest threat?

Readings:

  • The Federalist Papers, 37-51, esp. 37-40, 43, 45, 47-49, 51
  • Constitution of the United States of America (Ashbrook Center booklet)

6:00 pm – 8:00 pm: Dinner (Participant’s Choice)

Wednesday, July 19


7:30 am – 9:00 am: Breakfast (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

9:00 am – 10:30 am: Session 7 – Professor Morel (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

Topic: The Federalist Papers, Part III — Legislative Branch

Focus: What qualities did Publius expect or take for granted in the American people who would be living under the proposed constitution? In what ways was the Constitution a response to these qualities? How does the new constitution balance a concern for safety with a concern for utility? What qualities did Publius expect in the people who would serve respectively in the House of Representatives and the Senate? How did the functioning of each of these branches and of the constitution as a whole involve the operation of these qualities? What are the relations of the composition, powers, mode of selection, and tenure of office of the House of Representatives and Senate to the political purposes these offices were meant to serve and to the overall purposes to be served by the Constitution? How, in particular, do any of these elements contribute to the effective functioning of the separation of powers?

Readings:

  • The Federalist Papers, 52-85, esp. 52-53, 55, 57, 62-63, 67, 70-73, 78
  • Constitution of the United States of America (Ashbrook Center booklet)

10:50 am – 12:20 pm: Session 8 – Professor Morel (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

Topic: The Federalist Papers, Part IV — Executive and Judicial Branches

Focus: What qualities did Publius expect in the people who would serve respectively in the office of President and the Supreme Court? How did the functioning of each of these branches and of the constitution as a whole involve the operation of these qualities? What are the relations of the composition, powers, mode of selection, and tenure of office of the Executive and Judiciary to the political purposes these offices were meant to serve and to the overall purposes to be served by the constitution? How, in particular, do any of these elements contribute to the effective functioning of the separation of powers?

12:20 pm – 1:30 pm: Lunch (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

4:00 pm – 5:30 pm: Session 9 – Professor Lloyd (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

Topic: The Bill of Rights

Focus: The proposed constitution of 1787 did not contain a bill of rights. Why did James Madison agree to introduce a Bill of Rights in the First Congress? What were the arguments in favor and against the adoption of the Bill of Rights? How reliable are the original documents surrounding ratification and the adoption of the Bill of Rights

Readings:

  • Lloyd and Lloyd, eds., The Essential Bill of Rights
    • James Wilson Speech (Oct. 6, 1787), 283-286
    • Jefferson-Madison Correspondence, 319-331
    • Congressional History of the Bill of Rights, 344-357
  • The Federalist Papers, 84

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • Lloyd and Lloyd, The Essential Bill of Rights
    • James Madison Speech (June 8, 1789), 331-344

5:30 pm – 6:30 pm: Philadelphia week-ending discussion (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

6:30 pm – 8:30 pm: Dinner (Participant’s Choice)

Thursday, July 20


7:00 am – 9:00 am: Breakfast (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

9:00 am – 11:00 am: Tour of Independence Hall. From 1775 to 1783, Independence Hall was the meeting place for the Second Continental Congress. In the Assembly room of this building, George Washington was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in 1775, the Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, 1776, the Articles of Confederation were adopted in 1781, and the United States Constitution was drafted in 1787.

11:00 am – 12:00 pm: Lesson Planning Session – Master Teacher (Sheraton Society Hill meeting room)

12:30 pm: Travel via motorcoach to next site (Gettysburg). Boxed lunch en route

Gettysburg

Theme: The Testing of American Self-Government

Primary Text: The Gettysburg Address
“That this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”

3:30 pm: Gettysburg Hotel Check-In. The Gettysburg Hotel dates to 1797. In the summer of 1863, the hotel played witness to one of the seminal events in American history as Union and Confederate troops swarmed over the small town of Gettysburg during a pivotal and bloody three-day battle. Abraham Lincoln honed the immortal words of his Gettysburg Address at the Wills House, just steps away from the hotel.

4:30 pm – 6:00 pm: Session 10 – Professor Morel (Gettysburg Hotel Eisenhower Room)

Topic: The Rule of Law, Slavery, and the Future of Self-Government

Focus: What is “reverence for the laws” and why does Lincoln think it is so important to “the perpetuation of our political institutions”? Who or what is the “towering genius” that poses the greatest threat to American self-government? What does Lincoln’s criticism of “old school” temperance reformers suggest about the proper mode of political debate for a self-governing people? What role does Lincoln believe religion plays in a self-governing society?

Readings:

  • Basler, Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings
    • Short Autobiography Written for the Campaign of 1860 (June [1?], 1860), 547-555, esp. 552 (“Protest on the Slavery Question,” March 3, 1837)
    • The Perpetuation of Our Political Institutions: Address before the Young Men’s Lyceum of Springfield, Illinois (January 27, 1838), 76-85
    • Temperance Address (February 22, 1842 ), 131-141
    • Letter to Williamson Durley (October 3, 1845), 169-171
    • Religious Views (August 11, 1846), 186-188

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • Basler, Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings
    • The War with Mexico (January 12, 1848), 202-217
    • Eulogy on Henry Clay (July 6, 1852), Excerpt, 274-77
  • Jaffa, Crisis of the House Divided, chaps. 9, 10
  • McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, chap. 5

6:30 pm – 8:00 pm: Dinner (Participant’s Choice)

Friday, July 21


9:00 am – 10:30 am: Session 11 – Professor Guelzo (Gettysburg Hotel Eisenhower Room)

Topic: Abolitionism and Constitutional Self-Government

Focus: According to William Lloyd Garrison, what is wrong with gradual abolition of slavery? Does he think the Constitution is pro-freedom or pro-slavery? Why does Garrison not endorse political reform as the cure for the nation’s ills? What is Frederick Douglass’s view of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution? Does he view blacks in the United States as Americans? What do blacks in America need to flourish as human beings and as citizens? What is the key principle that Lincoln proposes for the “fusion” of various political interests into a new party? Contrast Lincoln’s approach to eliminating slavery with Garrison’s. What does Lincoln mean by comparing America to “a house divided against itself”? Why is Lincoln not an abolitionist?

Readings:

  • William Lloyd Garrison, Selections
    • To the Public (January 1, 1831) (PRP)
    • On the Constitution and the Union (December 29, 1832) (PRP)
    • Declaration of National Anti-Slavery Convention (Dec. 14, 1833) (PRP)
    • Declaration of Sentiments by Peace Convention (Sept. 28, 1838) (PRP)
    • Address to the Slaves of the United States (June 2, 1843) (PRP)
    • The American Union (January 10, 1845) (PRP)
    • Dred Scott and Disunion (March 12, 1858) (PRP)
    • Southern Desperation (November 16, 1860) (PRP)
  • Frederick Douglass, “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?” (July 5, 1852) (PRP)
  • Frederick Douglass, “Speech on the Dred Scott Decision” (May 11, 1857) (PRP)
  • Basler, Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings
    • Protest on the Slavery Question (March 3, 1837), 552
    • Letter to Owen Lovejoy (August 11, 1855), 328-329
    • Letter to George Robertson (August 15, 1855), 330-332
    • Letter to Joshua Speed (August 24, 1855), 332-336
    • The Dred Scott Decision: Speech at Springfield, Illinois (June 26, 1857), 352-
      365
  • Lincoln, Speech at a Republican Banquet in Chicago (Dec. 10, 1856) (PRP)
  • Lincoln, Letter to Lyman Trumbull (December 28, 1857) (PRP)
  • Jaffa, Crisis of the House Divided, chap. 13

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • Jaffa, Crisis of the House Divided, chaps. 7-8
  • Adam Gopnik, “John Brown’s Body,” 1-5 (PRP)
  • Diana Schaub, “Learning to Love Lincoln, Frederick Douglass’ Journey from
    Grievance to Gratitude,” Lincoln and Liberty, ed. Lucas E. Morel, chap. 4
  • Lucas E. Morel, “Lincoln, Liberty, and the American Constitutional Union,”
    Lincoln and Liberty, ed. Lucas E. Morel, chap. 6

10:50 am – 12:20 pm: Session 12 – Professor Guelzo (Gettysburg Hotel Eisenhower Room)

Topic: Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858

Focus: Contrast Lincoln’s understanding of the relation between public opinion and political rule with that of Stephen Douglas. What does Douglas mean by “diversity” and how does he use it to attack Lincoln’s alleged doctrine of “uniformity”? Why does Douglas think Lincoln is wrong to criticize the Dred Scott opinion? How does Lincoln answer Douglas’s charges? What does Lincoln mean by the “moral lights” of the community? In the second debate, how does Lincoln force Douglas into a quandary regarding popular sovereignty and support for the Dred Scott opinion? (See Douglas’s argument about “unfriendly legislation.”) In the seventh debate, what is Lincoln’s understanding of the Founders’ views regarding slavery? How does Lincoln show that the rhetoric of Douglas makes him a kind of abolitionist in practice?

Readings:

  • Stephen A. Douglas, “Homecoming Speech at Chicago” (July 9, 1858) (PRP)
  • Basler, Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings
    • Eulogy on Henry Clay (July 6, 1852), 264-277
    • Speech at Peoria, Illinois (October16, 1854), 283-323
    • The Dred Scott Decision: Speech at Springfield, Illinois (June 26, 1857), 352-
      365
    • House Divided Speech (June 16, 1858), 372-381
    • Fragment: On Slavery [August 1, 1858?], 427
    • Fragment: On Slavery [October 1, 1858?], 477-478
    • Last Speech in Springfield, Illinois [Oct. 30, 1858], 480-81
    • Letter to Doctor C.H. Ray (Nov. 20, 1858), 482-83
    • Letter to Henry L. Pierce and others (April 6, 1859), 488-489
  • The Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858), 1st, 2nd, and 7th Debates (37-115, 286-329)

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • Basler, Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings
    • Speech in Reply to Douglas at Chicago (July 10, 1858), 385-404
    • Speech in Reply to Douglas at Springfield (July 17, 1858), 405-424
  • The Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858), 3rd through 6th Debates (116-285)
  • Letters to Salmon Portland Chase (June 9, 1859 & June 20, 1859), 491-492, 492-493
  • Allen C. Guelzo, Lincoln and Douglas: The Debates that Defined America
  • Jaffa, Crisis of the House Divided, Epigrams, p. 15, and chaps. 3, 4

12:20 pm – 1:15 pm: Lunch (Gettysburg Hotel Stevens Room)

1:15 pm – 2:00 pm: Book Signing with Dr. Gary Gallagher (Gettysburg Hotel Eisenhower Room)

2:15 pm – 6:00 pm: Gettysburg Battlefield Bus Tour with Dr. Gary Gallagher. The Gettysburg National Military Park is preserved as a symbol of America’s struggle to survive as a nation and as a lasting memorial to the armies and soldiers who served in the great conflict. The Battle of Gettysburg was a critical turning point in the Civil War, a conflict that determined the fate of the United States.

Readings:

  • McPherson, Hallowed Ground: A Walk at Gettysburg
  • Gallagher, Causes Won, Lost, and Forgotten, Introduction, and chaps. 1 and 3

6:00 pm – 8:00 pm: Dinner (Participant’s Choice)

Saturday, July 22


7:00 am – 9:00 am: Breakfast (Gettysburg Hotel Stevens Room)

9:00 am – 10:30 am: Session 13 – Professor Guelzo (Gettysburg Hotel Eisenhower Room)

Topic: Lincoln’s Election, Secession, and the Civil War

Focus: As Lincoln recounts the early history of the federal government, what authority did it exercise over slavery? What problems do southerners have with the Republican Party, and how does Lincoln respond to their charges? Why does Lincoln claim that the Southern disposition during the 1860 election year was to “rule or ruin in all events”? What is his advice to Republicans as they face opposition over the slavery controversy? In his address to the New Jersey Senate, why does Lincoln call the American citizenry God’s “almost chosen people”? What is Lincoln’s declared agenda as the incoming president? Why does he think secession unjustified and illegitimate? What is Lincoln’s view of the authority of the Supreme Court? What does Lincoln mean by “the better angels of our nature”? How does Lincoln think the country can avoid civil war?

Readings:

  • Stephen Douglas to J.B. Dorr (June 22, 1859) (PRP)
  • Basler, Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings
    • Letter to Lyman Trumbull (Dec. 11, 1858), 486-87
    • Address at Cooper Institute (Feb. 27, 1860), 517-536
    • Letter to George Ashmun (May 23, 1860), 543-44
    • Farewell Address to N.J. Senate (Feb. 21, 1861), 574-575
    • Address in Independence Hall, Philadelphia (Feb. 22, 1861), 577-78
    • First Inaugural Address (March 4, 1861), 579-590
  • James Buchanan, State of the Union Address (December 3, 1860) (PRP)
  • Letter to Alexander H. Stephens (Dec. 22, 1860) (PRP)
  • Farewell Speech at Springfield (Feb. 11, 1861) (PRP)

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, chap. 7
  • Steven Kautz, “The Democratic Statesmanship of Abraham Lincoln,” Lincoln and
    Liberty, ed. Lucas E. Morel, chap. 7

10:50 am – 12:20 pm: Session 14 – Professor Morel (Gettysburg Hotel Eisenhower Room)

Topic: The Rights and Wrongs of Secession

Focus: What reasons did Southern secession commissioners give for seceding from the Union? What reasons did Alexander Stephens give in defense of the Southern Confederacy?

Readings:

  • John C. Calhoun, “Slavery as a Positive Good” (February 6, 1837), 1-3 (PRP)
  • Charles B. Dew, “Apostles of Secession,” North and South, IV (April 2001), 24-38 (PRP)
  • Stephen F. Hale to Gov. Beriah Magoffin (December 27, 1860) (PRP)
  • R.B. Rhett and C.G. Memminger, “The Justifying Causes of Secession” (December 20 & 25, 1860) (PRP)
  • Jefferson Davis, First Inaugural Address (February 18, 1861) (PRP)
  • Alexander Stephens, Cornerstone Speech (March 21, 1861) (PRP)
  • Lincoln, “Proclamation Calling Militia and Convening Congress” (April 15, 1861) (PRP)
  • Constitution of the Confederate States of America (March 11, 1861) (PRP)
  • Lincoln, “Letter to Reverdy Jackson” (April 15, 1861) (PRP)
  • Lincoln, “Letter to Winfield Scott” (April 24, 1861) (PRP)
  • Basler, Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings
    • Fragment: The Constitution and the Union (1860), 513-514
    • Annual Message to Congress (December 3, 1861), 630-635

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, chap. 8
  • Mackubin Thomas Owens, “The Case Against Secession” (PRP)

12:20 pm – 1:15 pm: Lunch (Gettysburg Hotel Stevens Room)

1:30 pm – 5:30 pm: Battlefield Bus Tour with Dr. Gary Gallagher

Readings:

  • Gallagher, Causes Won, Lost, and Forgotten, chaps. 2, 4, and Epilogue
  • Mackubin Thomas Owens, “Abraham Lincoln as War President: Practical Wisdom at War,” Lincoln and Liberty, ed. Lucas E. Morel, chap. 11

6:00 pm – 8:00 pm: Dinner (Participant’s Choice)

Sunday, July 23


8:00 am – 9:00 am: Breakfast (Gettysburg Hotel Stevens Room)

12:00 pm – 1:00 pm: Lunch (Gettysburg Hotel Stevens Room)

3:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Session 15 – Professor Guelzo (Gettysburg Hotel Eisenhower Room)

Topic: Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation

Focus: The Emancipation Proclamation did not free a single slave in areas loyal to the federal government, e.g., the border states of Maryland, Kentucky, Delaware, or Missouri. What did it accomplish? What did Frederick Douglass think about the Emancipation Proclamation at the time and then in retrospect? On emancipation, Lincoln moved too slowly for the radicals and abolitionists and too fast for the Democrats. How would you assess Lincoln’s actions?

Readings:

  • Basler, Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings
    • Letter to the Senate & House of Representatives (April 16, 1862), 640-641
    • Letter to Horace Greeley (August 22, 1862), 651-652
    • Annual Message to Congress (December 1, 1862), 666-688
    • Final Emancipation Proclamation (January 1, 1863), 689-691
    • Letter to General N.P. Banks (August 5, 1863), 714-16
    • Letter to James C. Conkling (August 26, 1863), 720-24
    • Letter to Governor Michael Hahn (March 13, 1864), 745
    • Address at a Sanitary Fair in Baltimore (April 18, 1864), 748-750
    • Letter to Henry W. Hoffman (October 10, 1864 ), 759
    • Annual Message to Congress (December 6, 1864), 773-789
  • Letter to Governor Andrew Johnson (March 26, 1863) (PRP)
  • Lincoln, Order of Retaliation (PRP)
  • Lincoln, To Stephen A. Hulburt (PRP)
  • Guelzo, Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation, Introduction and Chapters 1-5

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • Lucas E. Morel, “Forced into Gory Lincoln Revisionism” (PRP)
  • Don E. Fehrenbacher, “Only His Stepchildren: Lincoln & the Negro” (PRP)
  • James M. McPherson, “The ‘Glory’ Story” (PRP)

4:50 pm – 6:20 pm: Session 16 – Professor Morel (Gettysburg Hotel Eisenhower Room)

Topic: “A New Birth of Freedom” (Gettysburg Address) and Lincoln’s Reconstruction/Reelection (Second Inaugural Address)

Focus: Why does Lincoln call “all men are created equal” a “proposition” instead of a “self-evident truth”? How does he see the Civil War as a test? How does he define “dedication” and why does Lincoln depreciate what was said at the Gettysburg dedication? What is “the great task” that remains for the American people? What is the “new birth of freedom” he calls the nation to experience?

What are Lincoln’s objectives as the newly re-elected president? Why emphasize that both sides tried to avoid war? Why is there no explicit mention of the South as the cause of rebellion in the Second Inaugural Address? According to Lincoln, who or what was the cause of the Civil War? Why does he appeal to God’s judgment to discern the meaning of the Civil War? How does the Second Inaugural Address forge a connection between America’s past and America’s future? Why does Lincoln use his Second Inaugural Address to explain the meaning of the preceding four years?

Readings:

  • Basler, Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings
    • Meditation on the Divine Will (September 30, 1862), 655
    • Response to a Serenade (July 7, 1863), 709-710
    • Proclamation for Thanksgiving (October 3, 1863), 727-729
    • Proclamations of Prayer and Thanksgiving (October 3, 1863; October 20, 1864), 727-731, 761-762
    • Gettysburg Address (November 19, 1863), 734-737
    • Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863), 738-742
    • Letter to Mrs. Eliza P. Gurney (September 4, 1864), 757-758
    • Second Inaugural Address (March 4, 1865), 792-793
    • Letter to Thurlow Weed (March 15, 1865), 794
    • Last Public Address (April 11, 1865), 796-801
  • Lincoln, Letter to Edward Everett (November 20, 1863), 24-25 (PRP)
  • Resolution Submitting the Thirteenth Amendment to the States (February 1, 1865),
    253-54 (PRP)
  • Lincoln, Response to a Serenade (February 1, 1865), 254-55 (PRP)
  • Lincoln, Reply to Notification Committee (March 1, 1865) (PRP)

Supplemental/Optional Reading:

  • Lucas Morel, “Of Justice and Mercy in Abraham Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address,” 455-66 (PRP)
  • Michael P. Vorenberg, “A King’s Cure, A King’s Style: Lincoln, Leadership, and
    the Thirteenth Amendment,” 153-72 (PRP)
  • Lyndon B. Johnson, Memorial Day Speech, Gettysburg Battlefield (May 30, 1963): http://millercenter.org/scripps/archive/speeches/detail/3380

6:30 pm – 8:30 pm: Dinner (Participant’s Choice)

Monday, July 24


8:00 am – 9:00 am: Breakfast (Gettysburg Hotel Stevens Room)

9:00 am – 10:30 am: Session 17 – Professor Morel (Gettysburg Hotel Eisenhower Room)

Topic: Presidential Reconstruction

Focus: How did the uncertain “nature of the war” shape the problem of defining “reconstruction”? What were the fundamental theories available? How did Andrew Johnson and Congress differ in their views of postwar policy on both substantive and procedural grounds?

Readings:

  • Smith, A Just and Lasting Peace
    • Introduction, “Presidential Reconstruction, 1865-67,” 51-56
    • First Reconstruction Act, 242-45
    • Colored Union Leagues to Charles Sumner (April 29, 1865), 57-58
    • Charles Sumner, “Right and Duty of Colored Fellow-Citizens” (May 13, 1865), 58-59
    • Andrew Johnson, Proclamation Establishing Government for North Carolina” (May 29, 1865), 60-63
    • Andrew Johnson, Amnesty Proclamation (May 29, 1865), 64-67
    • Emily Waters to Her Husband (July 16, 1865), 68-69
    • Thaddeus Stevens, “Reconstruction” (Sept. 6, 1865), 70-85
    • Freedmen’s Bureau Officer to Reports on Conditions in Mississippi (Sept. 1865), 86-87
    • From Edisto Island Freedmen to Andrew Johnson (Oct. 28, 1865), 88-89
    • Laws of the State of Mississippi (1866), 153-65
    • Joseph S. Fullerton to Andrew Johnson (Feb. 9, 1866), 166-70
    • John Richard Dennett, “Vicksburg, Miss.” (March 8, 1866), 171-74

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • Andrew Johnson, “Moses of the Colored Men” (October 24, 1864), 66-67 (PRP)
  • Guelzo, Fateful Lightning, 483-497

10:50 am – 12:20 pm: Session 18 – Professor Morel (Gettysburg Hotel Eisenhower Room)

Topic: Congressional Reconstruction

Focus: What was the principal reason for, and elements of, congressional reconstruction policy up to the Fourteenth Amendment? How did they define the extent and limits of “civil rights”? What caused Congress to turn to a more radical Reconstruction policy? How “radical” was Radical Reconstruction? What did it do and what did it fail to do?

Readings:

  • Smith, A Just and Lasting Peace
    • Andrew Johnson, “First Annual Message to Congress” (Dec. 4, 1865), 90-106
    • 13th Amendment (Congress passed Jan. 31, 1865; ratified Dec. 6, 1865), 107
    • Civil Rights Act (April 9, 1866), 186-91
    • Andrew Johnson, “Second Annual Message to Congress” (Dec. 3, 1866), 223-28
    • Reconstruction Act (March 2, 1867), 242-45
    • Rep. Thaddeus Stevens, “Reconstruction” (July 9, 1867), 272-76
    • Andrew Johnson, “Third Annual Message to Congress” (Dec. 3, 1867), 298-306
    • 14th Amendment (Congress proposed on April 30, 1866 and passed June 13, 1866; ratified July 9, 1868), 348-49
    • 15th Amendment (Congress passed on Feb. 26, 1869; ratified Feb. 3, 1870), 372

Supplemental/Optional Reading:

  • Guelzo, Fateful Lightning, 497-513

12:30 pm – 1:30 pm: Lunch (Gettysburg Hotel Stevens Room)

4:30 pm – 6:00 pm: Session 19 – Professor Morel (Gettysburg Hotel Eisenhower Room)

Topic: Reconstruction and the Supreme Court

Focus: How faithfully did the Supreme Court interpret the Reconstruction amendments and statutes? How did its interpretation change over time, and reflect changing attitudes about race and federal power in the late 19th century? What did the “redemption” of the former Confederate states look like at the close of the 19th century? In what ways did Reconstruction fulfill or derail the promise of the American Founding?

Readings:

  • Smith, A Just and Lasting Peace
    • Frederick Douglass, “Reconstruction” (December 1866), 218-222
  • Slaughterhouse Cases, 83 U.S. 36 (1873), 268-73 (PRP)
  • United States v. Cruikshank, 92 U.S. 542 (1876), 1-5 (PRP)
  • Civil Rights Cases, 109 U.S. 3 (1883), 141-51 (PRP)
  • Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896), 1-7 (PRP)

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • Frederick Douglass, “The Civil Rights Case” (October 22, 1883) (PRP)
  • Clarence Thomas, “The Virtue of Defeat: Plessy v. Ferguson in Retrospect,”
    15-24 (PRP)
  • Kevin Boyle, “White Terrorists,” Book Review, New York Times (May 18,
    2008) (PRP)
  • Michael Kent Curtis, Book Review of Pamela Brandwein, Rethinking the Judicial Settlement of Reconstruction, in Journal of American Political Thought No. 1 (Spring 2012), 161-65 (PRP)
  • Guelzo, Fateful Lightning, 514-536

6:00 pm – 7:00 pm: Gettysburg week-ending discussion (Gettysburg Hotel Eisenhower Room)
7:00 pm – 9:00 pm: Dinner (Participant’s Choice)

Tuesday, July 25


8:00 am – 9:00 am: Breakfast (Gettysburg Hotel Stevens Room)
9:00 am – 10:00 am: Lesson Planning Session – Master Teacher (Gettysburg Hotel
Eisenhower Room)
10:30 am: Travel via motorcoach to next site (Washington, D.C.). Lunch en route. While en route—a tour of Arlington, Iwo Jima, Northern Virginia, etc.

Washington, DC

Theme: The Fulfillment of America’s Promise of Self-Government

Primary Text: Martin Luther King, Jr’s “I Have a Dream” Speech
“I have a dream my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.”

3:00 pm: Westin Crystal City Check-In
4:30 pm – 6:00 pm: Session 20 – Professor Morel (Westin Crystal City meeting room)

Topic: Booker T. Washington

Focus: What did Washington believe were the most urgent priorities for blacks at the close of the 19th century? On what issues was Washington prepared to compromise and why? What were the goals of Washington’s program and how did these differ from the recommendations of W.E.B. Du Bois?

Readings:

Booker T. Washington:

  • Brotz, African-American Social and Political Thought, 1850-1920
    • “The Educational Outlook in the South” (July 16, 1884), 351-356
    • “Atlanta Exposition Address” (September 18, 1895), 356-359
    • “Democracy and Education” (September 30, 1896), 362-371
  • “A Sunday Evening Talk” (February 10, 1895), 508-515 (PRP)
  • “To J.R. Barlow” (March 1, 1911), 608-609 (PRP)

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • Washington, Up From Slavery (1901), chap. 3, “The Struggle for an Education,” 42-62 (PRP)
  • Washington, “Address on Abraham Lincoln” (February 12, 1909), 33-39 (PRP)
  • Louis Harlan, “Booker T. Washington in Biographical Perspective” (October 1970), 1581-1599 (PRP)
  • Fairclough, Better Day Coming, chap. 3

6:00 pm – 7:30 pm: Dinner (Participant’s Choice)

Wednesday, July 26


8:00 am – 9:00 am: Breakfast (Westin Crystal City meeting room)

9:00 am – 10:30 am: Session 21 – Professor Seagrave (Westin Crystal City meeting room)

Topic: W.E.B. Du Bois

Focus: What were the goals of W.E.B. Du Bois’s program and how did these differ from the recommendations of Washington? Why does Du Bois seek to “conserve” the races? How would “the conservation of the races” help the future of the Negro race as well as the future of world civilization? What principles of the American regime appear to run counter to Du Bois’s emphasis on “race organizations” and “race solidarity”? What does Du Bois mean by the “talented tenth”? Compare Washington and Du Bois on the purpose of education.

Readings:

W.E.B. Du Bois:

  • Brotz, African-American Social and Political Thought, 1850-1920
    • “The Conservation of Races” (1897), 483-492
    • “The Talented Tenth” (1903), 518-533
  • Du Bois, Souls of Black Folk (1903)
    • “The Forethought,” v
    • “Of Our Spiritual Strivings,” 1-8
    • “Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others,” 25-36
    • “Of the Training of Black Men,” 55-68

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk
    • “Of the Faith of the Fathers,” 115-126
    • “The Sorrow Songs,” 155-164
  • Fairclough, Better Day Coming, chap. 4

10:50 am – 12:20 pm: Session 22 – Professor Seagrave (Hyatt Regency Room)

Topic: The Progressive Reform and Self-Government

Focus: The Progressives fought for reform at the turn of the century. What principled form did their criticism take of the Declaration, the Constitution, and political decentralization? They revered Lincoln, yet did not emulate his devotion to the Declaration of Independence, but invoked the preamble to the Constitution to make democracy more active. Jefferson’s and Hamilton’s views became living arguments again, but with interesting shifts. Self-government was in need of some assistance. What effect did their reforms—for example, direct primaries, initiative, referendum—have on federalism, separation of powers, and political parties? What legacy did the Progressives, Woodrow Wilson in particular, leave the nation?

Readings:

  • Ronald J. Pestritto, “Woodrow Wilson, American History, and the Advent of Progressivism” (PRP)
  • Ronald J. Pestritto, Woodrow Wilson: The Essential Political Writings
    • Wilson, “The Author and Signers of the Declaration,” 97-105
    • Wilson, The State, chap. 1, pp. 31-41
    • Wilson, Constitutional Government, chap. 3, pp. 175-190
    • Wilson, “Leaders of Men,” pp. 211-229
    • Wilson, “The Study of Administration,” pp. 231-248
  • Woodrow Wilson, “Abraham Lincoln: A Man of the People” (1909), 98-105 (PRP)
  • Theodore Roosevelt, “National Life and Character” (PRP)
  • Theodore Roosevelt, “The Right of the People to Rule” (PRP)
  • Theodore Roosevelt, “A Charter of Democracy” (PRP)
  • Theodore Roosevelt, “The Heirs of Abraham Lincoln” (PRP)

Supplemental/Optional Reading:

  • Ronald J. Pestritto and Jason R. Jividen, “Lincoln and the Progressives,” Lincoln and Liberty, ed. Lucas E. Morel, chap. 13

12:30 – 1:30 pm: Lunch (Westin Crystal City meeting room)

1:30 – 4:00 pm: Tour of the National Mall (Lincoln Monument, Vietnam Memorial, Korean War Memorial, etc.), MLK Memorial, FDR Memorial, and Jefferson Memorial

5:00 pm – 6:30 am: Session 23 – Professor Seagrave (Hyatt Regency Room)

Topic: Franklin D. Roosevelt and Democratic Leadership

Focus: The political and constitutional legacy of Franklin D. Roosevelt is impressive. What was his extraordinary achievement? In what ways did he improve upon Jefferson’s, Lincoln’s, and the Progressives’ understanding of democratic life and political structures? How did his New Deal envision a powerful, active, and programmatically ambitious national government? How was this related to the possibility of self-government? What is his legacy?

Readings:

  • FDR, “Commonwealth Club Address” (September 23, 1932) (PRP)
  • FDR, “First Inaugural” (March 4, 1933) (PRP)
  • FDR, “Second Inaugural” (January 20, 1937) (PRP)
  • FDR, “Annual Message to Congress” (January 11, 1944) (PRP)

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • Ralph Ellison, “The Myth of the Flawed White Southerner” (1968), 76-87 (PRP)
  • Fairclough, Better Day Coming, chaps. 8-9

7:00 pm – 8:30 pm: Dinner (Participant’s Choice)

Thursday, July 27


8:00 am – 9:00 am: Breakfast (Westin Crystal City meeting room)

9:00 am – 10:30 am: Session 24 – Professor Morel (Westin Crystal City meeting room)

Topic: Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, and the American Dream

Focus: Why does King reject force as a response to oppression? What is the major concern of the white clergymen who counsel King to stay away from Birmingham? What are the four stages of civil disobedience? How does King’s nonviolent resistance against a particular law actually support obedience to the government and laws? Why does King blame white moderates more than fringe elements like the Ku Klux Klan for lack of progress in securing civil rights for black Americans? What is the role of the church and God in King’s leadership of the modern Civil Rights Movement? In his “I Have a Dream” speech, does King combine religion and politics in a way that upholds or subverts what has come to be known as the “wall of separation” between church and state? Does King’s proposal for a “Bill of Rights for the Disadvantaged” indicate a shift from his earlier vision of the American dream? Does King’s advocacy of “compensatory or preferential treatment” look more to race or poverty as its justification? Is the G.I. Bill of Rights a good analogy for King’s promotion of a federal, economic program to help blacks and the disadvantaged, generally? What does “black power” mean to King? What does President Johnson mean by comparing “equality as a right” with “equality as a result”?

How does Malcolm X’s theology inform his political thinking? Malcolm X insists that there is no legitimate intermediate position between “the ballot” and “the bullet.” He is highly critical of King’s reliance on “civil” disobedience. Is he correct? How does his understanding of political action, and particularly the justification for violence, compare to the right of revolution as articulated by John Locke and enshrined in the Declaration of Independence? Why did Malcolm X reject integration as an aim of the civil rights struggle? Why must Black Nationalism be an internationalist movement?

Readings:

  • King, I Have a Dream: Writings and Speeches
    • “The Power of Non-Violence” (June 4, 1957), 29-33
    • “Letter from Birmingham Jail” (April 16, 1963), 83-100
    • “I Have a Dream” (August 28, 1963), 101-106
  • Clergymen, “Letter to Martin Luther King” (April 12, 1963), 282-283 (PRP)
  • Louis Lomax, When the Word is Given, “A Summing Up” (1963), 169-80 (PRP)
  • Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks
    • “Message to Grassroots” (November 10, 1963), 3-17
    • “A Declaration of Independence” (March 12, 1964), 18-22
    • “The Ballot or the Bullet” (April 3, 1964), 23-44

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • King, I Have a Dream: Writings and Speeches
    • “Eulogy for the Martyred Children” (September 18, 1963), 115-118
    • “Where Do We Go from Here?” (August 16, 1967), 169-79
    • “I See the Promised Land” (April 3, 1968), 193-203
  • King, Why We Can’t Wait
    • “Commitment Card” (1963), 67-69 and photos, after 106
    • Chap. 8, “The Days to Come,” 154-93, esp. Pt. III
  • Fairclough, Better Day Coming, chaps. 11-14
  • James A. Colaiaco, “Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Paradox of Nonviolent Direct Action” (1986), 16-28 (PRP)
  • Eric J. Sundquist, King’s Dream: The Legacy of Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” Speech (Yale University Press, 2009), chaps. 1, 4, 6
  • Lyndon B. Johnson, “‘To Fulfill These Rights’: Commencement Address at Howard University” (June 4, 1965), 201-208 (PRP)
  • Washington, D.C. Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial: http://www.mlkmemorial.org/
  • Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks
    • “At the Audubon” (December 20, 1964), 115-36
    • “Last Answers and Interviews” (Nov. 23, 1964-Feb. 21, 1965), 194-226

10:50 am – 12:20 pm: Session 25 – Professor Seagrave (Westin Crystal City meeting room)

Topic: The Reagan Era and the New Deal Legacy

Focus: Reagan seemed to campaign against Roosevelt’s legacy, but delighted in pointing out that he voted for him four times. Yet, he seemed to be interested in cutting back the size of the federal government and making its programs less ambitious. What were his purposes in doing so? Was his failure to cut back the size of government due primarily to Reagan’s policies during an era of “divided government,” or rather more a reflection of FDR’s success?

Readings:

  • John Dewey, Liberalism and Social Action (1935), Excerpts (PRP )
  • LBJ, “Remarks at the University of Michigan Commencement” (“Great Society”
    speech) (May 22, 1964) (PRP)
  • Reagan, “A Time for Choosing” (October 27, 1964) (PRP)
  • Reagan, “Acceptance Speech” (July 17, 1980) (PRP)
  • Reagan, “First Inaugural Address” (January 20, 1981) (PRP)
  • Reagan, “Speech at Westminster” (June 8, 1982) (PRP)
  • Reagan, “Second Inaugural Address” (January 20, 1985) (PRP)
  • Reagan, “Farewell Address” (January 11, 1989) (PRP)

12:30 – 1:30 pm: Lunch (Westin Crystal City meeting room)

2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: National Archives Tour

5:00 pm – 6:30 pm: Session 26 – Professor Morel (Westin Crystal City meeting room)

Topic: Barack Obama’s Gospel of Hope and Change

Focus: President Obama frequently praises the American founders and other traditional American icons (e.g., Abraham Lincoln), but also emphasizes America’s ability to change and identifies “hope” as the essential American creed. To what extent is Obama beholden to the American founding and in what ways does he depart from the Founders? Does his election as the first black American to the presidency move the United States into a postracial world? What do Obama’s speeches and writings indicate about his understanding of the role race plays in the 21st century?

Readings:

  • Obama, “Democratic National Convention Keynote Address” (July 27, 2004)
    (PRP)
  • Barack Obama, The Audacity of Hope, chaps. 2, 3
  • Obama, “A More Perfect Union” (March 18, 2008) (PRP)
  • Obama, “Acceptance of the Nobel Peace Prize” (December 10, 2009) (PRP)

Supplemental/Optional Readings:

  • Barack Obama, The Audacity of Hope, chap. 7
  • David Samuels, “Invisible Man: How Ralph Ellison Explains Barack Obama” (Oct. 22, 2008) (PRP)

6:30 pm – 7:30 pm: Washington, D.C. week-ending discussion (Westin Crystal City meeting room)

7:30 pm – 8:30 pm: Dinner (Participant’s Choice)

Friday, July 28


7:30 am – 8:30 am: Breakfast (Westin Crystal City meeting room)

9:00 am: Travel via motorcoach to Philadelphia. Participant’s choice lunch.

1:30 pm: Depart for home